The so-called “Great War” resulted in a strengthening of national sentiment and the idea of the nation state, partly due to what the men who took part were wearing.
Standardised uniforms were used to instil discipline and esprit de corps on the battlefield, with new technology enabling advances in mass production, wear, comfort and suitability of the outfits to a variety of climates.
The British wore khaki uniforms throughout World War One. These uniforms had originally been designed and issued in 1902 to replace the traditional red uniform and remained unchanged by 1914.
The change to khaki was in response to new technologies such as aerial reconnaissance and guns that didn’t smoke as much, which made soldiers’ visibility a problem on the battlefield.
The tunic had large breast pockets as well as two side pockets for storage. Rank was indicated by badges on the upper arm.
Variations on the standard uniform were issued depending on the nationality and role of the soldier.
In warmer climates, soldiers wore similar uniforms though in a lighter colour and made from thinner fabric with few pockets.
The Scottish uniform featured a shorter tunic which did not hang below the waist, enabling the wearing of a kilt and sporran.
Unlike other armies fighting in World War One, the French initially retained their 19th-century uniforms – something that had been a point of political contention before the war. Consisting of bright blue tunics and striking red trousers, some warned of terrible consequences if French forces were to continue wearing these uniforms on the battlefield.
In 1911 soldier and politician Adolphe Messimy cautioned,
“This stupid blind attachment to the most visible of colours will have cruel consequences.”
After disastrous losses at the Battle of the Frontiers, a significant factor being the high visibility of French uniforms and the propensity for those visible uniforms to attract heavy artillery fire, the decision was made to replace the conspicuous uniforms.
A uniform in a drab blue known as horizon blue had already been approved in June 1914, but was only issued in 1915.
France was, however, the first nation to introduce helmets and French soldiers were issued with the Adrian helmet from 1915.
In general, Russia had well over 1,000 variations of uniform, and that was just in the army. Cossacks in particular continued their tradition of having a uniform distinct from the majority of the Russian army, wearing traditional Astrakhan hats and long coats.
Most Russian soldiers typically wore a brownish khaki uniform, though it could vary depending on where the soldiers were from, where they were serving, rank or even on the materials or fabric dyes that were available.
Belts were worn over the brownish-green khaki jackets, with trousers loose around the hips yet tight at the knees and tucked into black leather boots, sapogi. These boots were of good quality (until later shortages) and German soldiers were known to replace their own boots with these when the opportunity arose.
However, helmets remained in short supply for Russian troops, with mostly officers receiving helmets by 1916.
Most soldiers wore a peaked cap with a visor made of khaki-coloured wool, linen or cotton (a furazhka). In Winter, this was changed to a papakha, a fleeced-cap which had flaps that could cover the ears and neck. When temperatures got extremely cold, these were also wrapped in a bashlyk cap that was slightly cone-shaped, and a large, heavy grey/brown overcoat was also worn.
At the outbreak of war, Germany was undergoing a thorough review of its army uniforms – something that continued throughout the conflict.
Previously, each German state had maintained its own uniform, leading to a confusing array of colours, styles and badges.
In 1910, the problem was rectified somewhat by the introduction of the feldgrau or field grey uniform. That provided some regularity although the traditional regional uniforms were still worn on ceremonial occasions.
In 1915, a new uniform was introduced which further simplified the 1910 feldgrau kit. Details on the cuffs and other elements were removed, making uniforms easier to mass produce.
The expensive practice of maintaining a range of regional uniforms for special occasions was also dispensed with.
In 1916, the iconic spiked helmets were replaced by the stahlhelm which would also provide the model for German helmets in World War Two.
In 1908, Austria-Hungary replaced its blue uniforms of the 19th century with grey ones similar to those worn in Germany.
The blue uniforms were retained for off-duty and parade wear, however, while those who still had them in 1914 continued to wear them during the war.
The Austro-Hungarian army had summer and winter versions of its uniform which differed in material weight and collar style.
The standard headgear, meanwhile, was a cloth cap with a peak, with officers wearing a similar but stiffer hat. Units from Bosnia and Herzegovina wore fezzes instead – grey fezzes when fighting and red ones while off duty.