The story of the conquistadors and the fall of the Aztec Empire have spanned many myths which have become ingrained in Western consciousness and culture, regardless of their truth content.
Narratives surrounding the Spanish conquest of the Americas and conquistadors are generally Eurocentric, while the sources are somewhat limited. But who exactly were the conquistadors, what was their impact on the early modern world, and why are they do they remain contentious today?
In 1492, Columbus left Spain on the order of the Spanish rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella as he attempted to sail round the world to the Far East. Instead, he ‘discovered’ the continent of America.
Several years later, in 1508, Pope Julius II made the Spanish Crown responsible for the evangelization of the New World, and the economic opportunity for expansion and trade was also a further attraction. The very name conquistador literally means ‘conqueror’.
Knights, soldiers, missionaries and explorers sailed across the world, opening up new trade routes, establishing Spanish colonies and exploring lands which previously had been unknown to Europe. These men might have wished to make their fortune, seek adventure, or simply did not think there was anything for them in Spain.
Accounts of exploits
The accounts that survived the Spanish conquest of the Americas are Spanish. Several notable ones include Cortes’ letters to Charles V, Bernal Diaz del Castillo’s ‘The Conquest of New Spain’ and Bernardino de Sahagun’s ‘The Florentine Codex’.
The three accounts describe in great detail key moments and pivotal battles, but are all extremely different. The absence of indigenous versions of events means their perspective has been relegated for centuries.
The version of the narrative which situates conquistadors as heroic explorers, going where no man (or more accurately, European man) had gone before took root in the imagination of those back in Spain and Europe in general. The repression of indigenous cultures and religions ensured the story remained skewed for centuries.
The legacy of the conquistadors is being increasingly reassessed in the modern world, but there remains limited source material with which to do this. Histories such as Fifth Sun: A New History of the Aztecs by Camilla Townsend have sought to humanise depictions of native Mexicans, rather than seeing them as exotic figures.
Modern day perceptions
Today, the conquistadors are often associated with a kind of glamour – swashbuckling adventurers exploring an almost untouched tropical world, bringing home gold and glory. Few really understand the violence, disease, cultural genocide and change they brought to the native populations of the Americas.
Even large sophisticated civilizations, such as the Aztecs and Incas, crumbled in the face of the arrival of the conquistadors. The world was changed dramatically by the conquistadors and the arrival of Europeans in the Americas.
Hernan Cortes – perhaps the most famous of all the conquistadors, Cortes led the expedition which toppled the Aztec empire, and saw the conquest of Mexico in the name of the King of Castile. Part of Cortes’ success can be attributed to his tactic of allying himself with indigenous people to defeat common enemies.
Cortes also wrote to Charles V repeatedly asking for Franciscan and Dominican Friars to help with the conversion of the native population: his wish was granted in 1524. He earned the title Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, and continued on a variety of trips to the Americas, exploring swathes of modern day Nicaragua and Baja California.
Francisco Pizarro – Cortes’ second cousin, Pizarro served as Mayor of Panama City, and undertook two failed expeditions to Peru before, third time lucky, he was granted permission from the Spanish Crown to undertake an expedition to conquer Peru in 1529.
He arrived in Peru in early 1531, and in less than 2 years, completed his conquest of Peru – he captured the Incan emperor Atahualpa, ransomed him and later executed him. In 1533, he entered the then capital Cusco. Not long after this, he was murdered on the orders of Diego de Almagro II as revenge for Almagro’s father’s death.
Diego de Almagro (El Viejo) – originally an ally of Pizarro, Almagro is credited with the ‘discovery’ of Chile, and he was one of (if not ) the first Europeans to take the Inca trail across the Andes. Almagro also laid the foundations of the cities of Quito and Trujillo.
On his return to Peru, Almagro clashed with Pizarro and civil war erupted. He was later executed by garrotte in a dungeon.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras – a conquistador from the start, Alvarado participated in the conquests of Cuba and Mexico, and was subsequently dispatched by Cortes to conquer modern-day Guatemala. Working with (and sometimes against) Mayan kingdoms enabled him to conquer large swathes of the Pacific Coast, and he eventually headed down into El Salvador.
Alvarado was later made governor of Guatemala and Honduras. He was also known for his cruelty towards the native populations he governed and the brutality of his conquest. Unusually, his wife Beatriz succeeded him as Governor of Guatemala.
These men have found fame (and often glory) in European history books for centuries. Their exploits were, in many respects, remarkable, but that should not detract from their brutal treatment of indigenous peoples, and the cultural genocide they undertook of native customs, beliefs and practices.
Assessing their legacy impartially is nigh impossible: the conquistadors were products of their time, and judging them on the moral standings and beliefs of today is unhelpful. It is, however, safe to say that their legacy is both difficult and emotive, and that their actions shaped the modern world.