The First World War is infamous for its colossal numbers of deaths, interminably long battles and unashamedly vicious methods of waging war. This list gives some concrete figures to highlight the true extent of the destruction of the First World War.
The figures include not only the dead but also the wounded and prisoners of war. With the huge numbers of people involved there are, of course, difficulties in calculating precise numbers. Despite the occasional imprecision of First World War record keeping however these figures still provide a powerful illustration of the appalling effects of the war.
15. Battle of Arras
9 April–16 May 1917 – 278,000 casualties
The Battle was fought between Britain and Germany with 158,000 British and 120,000 German casualties.
14. Battles of Tannenberg & Masurian Lakes
26–30 August 1914 & 7–14 September 1914 – 347,000 casualties
At the Battle of Tannenberg itself the German army lost only 10,000 men but inflicted 170,000 casualties on the Russians. The Battle of Masurian Lakes occured as the Germans pursued the retreating Russian force inflicting another 125,000 casualties while once again only losing 10,000 of their own men.
13. Second Battle of the Aisne
16 April – 9 May 1917 – 355,000 Casualties
Fought between the French and the Germans the second battle of the Aisne resulted in 182,000 French and 163,000 German casualties.
12. Battle of Kolubara
16 November – 16 December 1914 – 405,000 casualties
The Serbian campaign was disastrous for Austria-Hungary and Kolubara marked the turning point in favour of the Serbians.
273,000 Austrian casualties were inflicted and they fled the country. The Serbian human cost was extensive too though and over a quarter of their population perished in the course of World War One.
11. Gallipoli campaign
25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916 – 470,000 casualtiesThe Gallipoli offensive is best known for its failure and high cost in allied lives which totalled 187,959 casualties including 28,150 Australians. The Ottomans too, however, suffered heavy losses defending and their total casualties were around 174,828
10. First Battle of the Marne
6–12 September 1914 – 519,000 casualties
Fought to defend Paris from German capture the Battle of the Marne led to a quarter of a million French casualties. German casualty figures are unknown but believed to be similar.
9. Battle of Galicia (Lemberg)
23 August – 11 September 1914 – 655,0000 casualties
Despite being a significant victory for the Russians they still lost 225,000 men at Galicia. Their opponents, Austria-Hungary, suffered greater losses at around 324,000 men.
8. Battle of Verdun – 21 February
20 December 1916 – 698,000 casualties
Lasting three quarters of a year Verdun was one of the longest battles of the war and the French and German armies suffered in excess of 300,000 casualties each and average of around 70,000 per month.
7. Battle of Lys and Second Battle of the Somme
7–29 April 1918 & August 21 – September 3, 191 – 804,100 casualties
Taking place around the time of the Hundred Days and Spring Offensives the Battles of the Somme and Lys would proved immensely costly for all sides.
6. Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele)
31 July – 10 November 1917 – 857,100 casualties
The casualty figures for Passchendaele are highly contested but it is generally agreeed that each side lost a minimum of 200,000 men and likely as many as twice that.
5. Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive
2 May – June 1915 – 1,087,000 casualties
The Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive was a clear victory for the Central Powers over Russia with the latter suffering over 400,000 casualties in May alone.
4. First Battle of the Somme
1 July – 18 November 1916 – 1,113,000 casualtiesThe Battle of the Somme presented very few tangible gains for either side and yet was one of the most terrible of the war. 623,907 French and British soldiers became causalties as did up to half a million Germans.
3. Spring Offensive (Kaiserschalcht/Ludendorff Offensive)
21 March – 18 July 1918 – 1,539,715 casualties
The Spring Offensive was technically as success for the Germans and they succeeded in taking allied ground. In the process, however, they took 688,341 casualties and their depleted forces were unable to hold onto the areas taken in the offensive.
Allied losses too were high though and both Britian and France would emerge from the Spring Offensive with over 400,000 fewer men than they started with.
2. Hundred Days Offensive
8 August – 11 November 1918 – 1,855,369 Casualties
Launched in response to the Spring Offensive the Hundred Days would be one of the worst periods of fighting on the western front. 785,733 Germans were injured or killed and a further 386,342 taken prisoner.
A total of 1,070,000 British, French and Americans were either captured, killed or wounded.
1. Brusilov Offensive
June 4 – September 20, 1916 – 2,317,800 casualties
As with the Battle of Galicia the Brusilov Offensive was a Russian victory that came at a staggeringly high price this time over 1 million men became casualties on the Russian side alone.
750,000 casualties were inflicted on the Central Powers, these were mostly Ausro-Hungarian but around 140,000 Germans are also included in the 750,000.