Fort Saint Jean - History and Facts | History Hit

Fort Saint Jean

Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France

Fort Saint Jean was built in the seventeenth century in Marseille and later used as a prison during the French Revolution.

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About Fort Saint Jean

Fort Saint Jean is a fortification in Marseille, built in 1660 by Louis XIV at the entrance to the Old Port.

Fort Saint Jean history

Fort Saint Jean was one of two fortresses built by King Louis XIV in Marseille in the 17th century. Construction began in the 1660’s under the guise of wanting to protect Marseille from outside attack. In fact, the purpose of Fort Saint Jean was to subdue a rebellion by the citizens against royal rule, a role also fulfilled be Fort Saint Nicholas on the other end of the harbour.

The site on which Fort Saint Jean was erected was previously home to a fourteenth century complex of buildings built by the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem during the crusades. It included a palace, chapel and a hospital. A later addition to the site was the René I Tower, built in the mid-fifteenth century and dedicated to the then king of Provence. Some of these buildings were incorporated into Fort Saint Jean.

Fort Saint Jean was garrisoned until the French Revolution when it became a prison housing, amongst others, the Duke of Orléans, Louis Philippe II and his two sons. Louis Philippe II had originally been a proponent of the revolution, even taking to being called “Philippe Égalité”, but was not spared in the Reign of Terror, eventually being executed by guillotine.

In World War Two, Fort Saint Jean served as a munitions storage facility during the Nazi occupation of Marseille. This would spell the destruction of much of Fort Saint Jean as, in 1944, some of the ammunition stored within it exploded. It is home to the Museum of Civilizations in Europe and the Mediterranean, although at the time of writing, this may be undergoing renovation.

Fort Saint Jean today

Today, Fort Saint Jean is one of the most visited monuments in Marseille. It is connected to the former port by a footbridge, forming an integral part of the MuCEM (Museum of the Civilizations of Europe and the Mediterranean).

The view of the port and bay of Marseille, as well as the footbridge, is a real delight. Between history, culture and spectacular panorama, the experience cannot leave anyone indifferent.

Getting to Fort Saint Jean

Fort Sain Jean overlooks the port of Marseille and the famous Château d’If off the coast. The address of the site is Prom. Robert Laffont, 13002 Marseille, France.

The port of Marseille is located roughly 65 kilometres up the coast from Toulon (45 minute drive down the A50) and roughly 120 kilometres from the town of Nimes (1 hour and 30 minute drive along the A7/A54).

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